Sunday, 23 March 2014

Delete particular folder base don Time Criteria

package Bean;

import java.util.Calendar;

public class DeleteDir {

    private static void autoDeleteFileAndDir(String filePath, Integer hours,
            Integer minutes) {
        Long timeDiff;
        if (filePath != null && !filePath.isEmpty()
                && (hours != null || minutes != null)) {
                timeDiff= (long) (hours*60 * 60 * 1000);
            }else {
                timeDiff= (long) (minutes * 60 * 1000);
            File file = new File(filePath);

            .println("Now will search folders and delete files in :: ,\nFile path :: "
                    + file.getAbsolutePath());
            if (file.isDirectory()) {
                for (File f : file.listFiles()) {
                    if (f.isDirectory()) {
                        Long FileTimeDiff = (Calendar.getInstance().getTime().getTime() - f
                        System.out.println("\n\nf.lastModified() :: "
                                + f.lastModified()
                                + "\nnew Date().getDate() :: "
                                + Calendar.getInstance().getTime().getTime() + "\nDiff :: "
                                + FileTimeDiff);
                        if (FileTimeDiff > timeDiff) {
                            if (f.delete()) {
                                System.out.println("\n\n" + f.getName()
                                        + ":: Dir deleted!!!!!");
                        } else {
                            System.out.println("\n\n" + f.getName()
                                    + ":: Dir not deleted!!!!!");
        }else {
            System.out.println("Invalid parameter");

Saturday, 22 March 2014

The Spiral Model

The spiral model, originally proposed by Boehm , is an evolutionary software
process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and
systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. It provides the potential for rapid
development of incremental versions of the software. Using the spiral model, software
is developed in a series of incremental releases. During early iterations, the
incremental release might be a paper model or prototype. During later iterations,
increasingly more complete versions of the engineered system are produced.
A spiral model is divided into a number of framework activities, also called task
regions.6 Typically, there are between three and six task regions. A spiral model
 that contains six task regions:
Customer communication—tasks required to establish effective communication
between developer and customer.

Planning—tasks required to define resources, timelines, and other projectrelated

Risk analysis—tasks required to assess both technical and management

Engineering—tasks required to build one or more representations of the

Construction and release—tasks required to construct, test, install, and
provide user support (e.g., documentation and training).

Customer evaluation—tasks required to obtain customer feedback based
on evaluation of the software representations created during the engineering
stage and implemented during the installation stage.

Each of the regions is populated by a set of work tasks, called a task set, that are
adapted to the characteristics of the project to be undertaken. For small projects, the
number of work tasks and their formality is low. For larger, more critical projects,
each task region contains more work tasks that are defined to achieve a higher level
of formality
As this evolutionary process begins, the software engineering team moves around
the spiral in a clockwise direction, beginning at the center. The first circuit around
the spiral might result in the development of a product specification; subsequent
passes around the spiral might be used to develop a prototype and then progressively
more sophisticated versions of the software. Each pass through the planning region
results in adjustments to the project plan. Cost and schedule are adjusted based on
feedback derived from customer evaluation. In addition, the project manager adjusts
the planned number of iterations required to complete the software.

Unlike classical process models that end when software is delivered, the spiral
model can be adapted to apply throughout the life of the computer software. An alternative
view of the spiral model can be considered by examining the project entry point
axis. Each cube placed along the axis can be used to represent
the starting point for different types of projects. A “concept development
project” starts at the core of the spiral and will continue (multiple iterations occur
along the spiral path that bounds the central shaded region) until concept development
is complete. If the concept is to be developed into an actual product, the process
proceeds through the next cube (new product development project entry point) and
a “new development project” is initiated. The new product will evolve through a number
of iterations around the spiral, following the path that bounds the region that has
somewhat lighter shading than the core. In essence, the spiral, when characterized
in this way, remains operative until the software is retired. There are times when the
process is dormant, but whenever a change is initiated, the process starts at the appropriate
entry point .

The spiral model is a realistic approach to the development of large-scale systems
and software. Because software evolves as the process progresses, the developer and
customer better understand and react to risks at each evolutionary level. The spiral model
uses prototyping as a risk reduction mechanism but, more important, enables the developer
to apply the prototyping approach at any stage in the evolution of the product. It
maintains the systematic stepwise approach suggested by the classic life cycle but incorporates
it into an iterative framework that more realistically reflects the real world. The
spiral model demands a direct consideration of technical risks at all stages of the project
and, if properly applied, should reduce risks before they become problematic.
But like other paradigms, the spiral model is not a panacea. It may be difficult to
convince customers (particularly in contract situations) that the evolutionary approach
is controllable. It demands considerable risk assessment expertise and relies on this
expertise for success. If a major risk is not uncovered and managed, problems will
undoubtedly occur. Finally, the model has not been used as widely as the linear
sequential or prototyping paradigms. It will take a number of years before efficacy of
this important paradigm can be determined with absolute certainty.

Walkthrough & Inspection

Review is "A process or meeting during which artifacts of software product are examined by project stockholders, user representatives, or other interested parties for feedback or approval”. Software Review can be on Technical specifications, designs, source code, user documentation, support and maintenance documentation, test plans, test specifications, standards, and any other type of specific to work product, it can be conducted at any stage of the software development life cycle.

Purpose of conducting review is to minimize the defect ratio as early as possible in Software Development life cycle. As a general principle, the earlier a document is reviewed, the greater will be the impact of its defects on any downstream activities and their work products. Magnitude cost of defect fixing after the release of the product is around 60-100x. Review can be formal or informal. Informal reviews are referred as walkthrough and formal as Inspection.

Walkthrough: Method of conducting informal group/individual review is called walkthrough, in which a designer or programmer leads members of the development team and other interested parties through a software product, and the participants ask questions and make comments about possible errors, violation of development standards, and other problems or may suggest improvement on the article, walkthrough can be pre planned or can be conducted at need basis and generally people working on the work product are involved in the walkthrough process.
The Purpose of walkthrough is to:
· Find problems
· Discuss alternative solutions
· Focusing on demonstrating how work product meets all requirements.IEEE 1028 recommends three specialist roles in a walkthrough:
Leader: who conducts the walkthrough, handles administrative tasks, and ensures orderly conduct (and who is often the Author)
Recorder: who notes all anomalies (potential defects), decisions, and action items identified during the walkthrough meeting, normally generate minutes of meeting at the end of walkthrough session.
Author: who presents the software product in step-by-step manner at the walk-through meeting, and is probably responsible for completing most action items.

Walkthrough Process: Author describes the artifact to be reviewed to reviewers during the meeting. Reviewers present comments, possible defects, and improvement suggestions to the author. Recorder records all defect, suggestion during walkthrough meeting. Based on reviewer comments, author performs any necessary rework of the work product if required. Recorder prepares minutes of meeting and sends the relevant stakeholders and leader is normally to monitor overall walkthrough meeting activities as per the defined company process or responsibilities for conducting the reviews, generally performs monitoring activities, commitment against action items etc.

Inspection: An inspection is a formal, rigorous, in-depth group review designed to identify problems as close to their point of origin as possible., Inspection is a recognized industry best practice to improve the quality of a product and to improve productivity, Inspections is a formal review and generally need is predefined at the start of the product planning, The objectives of the inspection process are to
· Find problems at the earliest possible point in the software development process
· Verify that the work product meets its requirement
· Ensure that work product has been presented according to predefined standards
· Provide data on product quality and process effectiveness
· Inspection advantages are to build technical knowledge and skill among team members by reviewing the output of other people
· Increase the effectiveness of software testing.
IEEE 1028 recommends three following roles in an Inspection:
Inspector Leader: The inspection leader shall be responsible for administrative tasks pertaining to the inspection, shall be responsible for planning and preparation, shall ensure that the inspection is conducted in an orderly manner and meets its objectives, should be responsible for collecting inspection data
Recorder: The recorder should record inspection data required for process analysis. The inspection leader may be the recorder.
Reader: The reader shall lead the inspection team through the software product in a comprehensive and logical fashion, interpreting sections of the work product and highlighting important aspects
Author: The author shall be responsible for the software product meeting its inspection entry criteria, for contributing to the inspection based on special understanding of the software product, and for performing any rework required to make the software product meet its inspection exit criteria.
Inspector: Inspectors shall identify and describe anomalies in the software product. Inspectors shall be chosen to represent different viewpoints at the meeting (for example, sponsor, requirements, design, code, safety, test, independent test, project management, quality management, and hardware engineering). Only those viewpoints pertinent to the inspection of the product should be present. Some inspectors should be assigned specific review topics to ensure effective coverage. For example, one inspector may focus on conformance with a specific standard or standards, another on syntax, and another for overall coherence. These roles should be assigned by the inspection leader when planning the inspection.
All participants in the review are inspectors. The author shall not act as inspection leader and should not act as reader or recorder. Other roles may be shared among the team members. Individual participants may act in more than one role. Individuals holding management positions over any member of the inspection team shall not participate in the inspection
Inspection Process: Following are review phases:
· Planning
· Overview
· Preparation
· Examination meeting
· Inspection Leader perform following task in planning phase
· Determine which work products need to be inspected
· Determine if a work product that needs to be inspected is ready to be inspected
· Identify the inspection team
· Determine if an overview meeting is needed.
The moderator ensures that all inspection team members have had inspection process training. The moderator obtains a commitment from each team member to participate. This commitment means the person agrees to spend the time required to perform his or her assigned role on the team. Identify the review materials required for the inspection, and distribute materials to relevant stake holders
Overview: Purpose of the overview meeting is to educate inspectors; meeting is lead by Inspector lead and is presented by author, overview is presented for the inspection, this meeting normally acts as optional meeting, purpose to sync the entire participant and the area to be inspected.
Preparation: Objective of the preparation phase is to prepare for the inspection meeting by critically reviewing the review materials and the work product, participant drill down on the document distributed by the lead inspector and identify the defect before the meeting
Examination meeting: The objective of the inspection meeting is to identify final defect list in the work product being inspected, based on the initial list of defects prepared by the inspectors [identified at preparation phase and the new one found during the inspection meeting. The Lead Auditor opens the meeting and describes the review objectives and area to be inspected. Identify that all participants are well familiar with the content material, Reader reads the meeting material and inspector finds out any inconsistence, possible defects, and improvement suggestions to the author. Recorder records all the discussion during the inspection meeting, and mark actions against the relevant stake holders. Lead Inspector may take decision that if there is need of follow up meeting. Author updates the relevant document if required on the basis of the inspection meeting discussion
Rework and Follow-up: Objective is to ensure that corrective action has been taken to correct problems found during an inspection.

Friday, 21 March 2014

Image Sequence in ImageJ

Creates a new image window or stack. A dialog box allows you to specify the image title, type, dimensions and initial content.
Name is the title that will be used for the Window. Type is the image type: 8-bit grayscale, 16-bit grayscale (unsigned), 32-bit (float) grayscale or RGB color. Fill With (White, Black or Ramp) specifies how the image is initialized. Width and Height specify the image dimensions in pixels. Set Slices to a value greater than one to create a stack.

import ij.IJ;
import ij.ImagePlus;
import ij.WindowManager;

public class TestImp {

    public static void main(String[] args) {"Image Sequence...", "open=C:\tempfiles");

        // "open=C:\tempfiles number=2 starting=1 increment=1 scale=100 file=[] or=[] sort");

        ImagePlus imagePlus = WindowManager.getCurrentImage();



Thursday, 13 March 2014

Regarding calibration in the dicom image using ImageJ

1. I assume you have these in DICOM format. In ImageJ it is simple to import a single DICOM image and the calibration is done for you (the DICOM header contains fields for slope and intercept (usually 1 and -1024)). Since you have a stack this is probably not much good. For importing tomographic studies I use the "Import Dicom sequence" plugin available here:

From what I remember it is not the most straight-forward plugin to install but will nicely import a sequence of DICOM images as a stack. It does not, however, seem to calibrate the gray levels into hounsfield units. To do this choose Analyse->Calibrate. Choose "Straight line" as the function, type -1024 in the left box and 0 in the right box. When you press OK you get a straight-line graph of the calibration and a label with straight line formula y = a + bx. a should be -1024 and b should be 1. If they are then we have a calibration to HU.

To demonstrate the HU calibration, move the cursor around the image and observe the "value" in the IJ status bar. The value is in HU and the gray level appears in brackets.

2. Images typically only contain 256 gray levels when displayed, even though the image may contain values of any number (eg CT from -1024 to ~32k). So gray levels have to be "binned" in an image, just like in a histogram. So the column labelled "level" is the gray level displayed in the image and the "bins" are demonstrated in the second column. The size of the bin is dictated by the min and max pixel levels.

I hope I pitched that at the right level. Enjoy ImageJ ;-)

Converting CT Data to Hounsfield Units

According to Wikipedia, the Hounsfield scale was invented in 1972 by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield. His scale is a quantitative measure of radiodensity and is used to evaluate CAT scans. Pixels in an image obtained by CT scanning are displayed in terms of relative radiodensity. 

The pixel value is displayed according to the mean attenuation of the tissue that it corresponds to on a scale from -1024 to +3071 on the Hounsfield scale. Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU) while air is -1000 HU, bone is typically +400 HU or greater and metallic implants are usually +1000 HU. 

To convert from the normal units found in CT data (a typical data set ranges from 0 to 4000 or so) you have to apply a linear transformation of the data. The equation is:
   hu = pixel_value * slope + intercept
The real question is where do you find the slope and intercept used in the conversion?
Normally, these values are stored in the DICOM file itself. The tags are generally called the Rescale Slope and Rescale Intercept, and typically have values of 1 and -1024, respectively.

To show you how to obtain these values, I downloaded a sample CT data set, named CT-MONO2-16-ankle.dcm. This file was created on a GE Medical Systems scanner. After unpacking the compressed file, and adding a dcm file extension to the name (a convenience), I opened the file and dumped the elements to the display.
   IDL> dicomObj = Obj_New('IDLffDICOM', 'CT-MONO2-16-ankle.dcm')
   IDL> dicomObj -> DumpElements
      0 : (0002,0000) : UL : META Group Length : 4 : 188 
      1 : (0002,0001) : OB : META File Meta Information Version : 2 : 0 1 
      2 : (0002,0002) : UI : META Media Stored SOP Class UID : 26 : 1.2.840.10008.
     50 : (0028,1052) : DS : IMG Rescale Intercept : 6 : -1024 
     51 : (0028,1053) : DS : IMG Rescale Slope : 2 : 1 
     52 : (0028,1054) : LO : IMG Rescale Type : 2 : US
     53 : (7FE0,0000) : UL : PXL Group Length : 4 : 524296 
     54 : (7FE0,0010) : OW : PXL Pixel Data : 524288 : 4080 4080 4080 4080 4080 ...
I found the Rescale Slope and Rescale Intercept as elements 51 and 50. As expected, they had values of 1 and -1024.
Next, I read the data from the DICOM file, and applied the transformation.
   IDL> imagePtr = (dicomObj -> GetValue('7FE0'x, '0010'x))[0]
   IDL> MinMax, *imagePtr 
        32   4080
   IDL> image_hu = *imagePtr * 1 + (-1024)
   IDL> MinMax, image_hu
        -992   3056
This image will appear upside down on my display, so I want to reverse the Y direction.
   IDL> image_hu = Reverse(image_hu, 2)
If I just want to see the bone structure (probably a good idea with this ankle image), I can display it like this.
   TV, BytScl(image_hu, Min=600, Max=3000)
The CT image displayed in Hounsfield units.
The bone structure of the CT angle image, displayed in Hounsfield units.
Be sure to clean up your pointers and objects.
   IDL> Ptr_Free, imagePtr
   IDL> Obj_Destroy, dicomObj